The birth of a baby brings a bundle of joy. But sometimes, the birth of a baby involves some risk factors, which can cause some complications in the baby. There are chances that a baby may have cerebral palsy (a congenital disorder of movement, muscle tone, or posture). The significant risk factor is any complication of birth. Difficulty refers to something that goes wrong or is considered abnormal. The complication is usually caused due to medical negligence, and it may be preventable.
WHAT IS A BIRTH COMPLICATION?
The complication of birth refers to any problem that is a risk to the mother’s health or the child during the delivery. Some complications may occur during pregnancy. Problems may occur in pregnant women or the developing fetus before the labor begins.
Birth complications during labor and the baby’s delivery may have some severe repercussions for the mother and her baby. The difficulty may lead to brain damage to the baby. The complications ultimately cause birth injuries. Numerous kinds of childbirth complications occur in a specific percentage of all pregnancies, but the rate of occurrence may vary. Some of the difficulties may be generous, while the other complications can be harmful and even life-threatening.
Some childbirth complications are challenging for doctors to manage. These complications cause birth injuries even if it leads to the baby’s death. Some of the most dangerous childbirth complications are as follows:
When the uterus ruptures or tears during labour delivery, it may lead to excessive bleeding, which is very harmful to the mother and her baby. There are chances that the baby may suffer from brain damage. Uterine rupture is the most dangerous complication. It is that dangerous that it is actually above all the childbirth complications. Uterine rupture is an unusual occurrence in which the wall or lining of the mother’s uterus tears open.
The rupture of the uterine wall occurs abruptly and ordinarily without any prior indication. In some severe cases, the rupture tear opens a hole in the uterus wall. It allows the amniotic fluid and even the baby to come out of the mother’s womb. Uterine rupture is hazardous. As soon as a rupture happens, the baby is at instant risk of oxygen deprivation, which prompts critical brain defect or death very soon.
The moment the uterus ruptures, the baby’s life is endangered. The doctors try to deliver the baby quickly, depending on the severity of the rupture, to avoid a brain injury or death. Although most ruptures are not diagnosed immediately. That what makes uterine rupture hazardous.
Shoulder dystocia refers to an urgent situation during the vaginal delivery in the baby’s shoulder stuck while entering the birth canal, generally on the pelvis bone of the mother. Shoulder dystocia during childbirth renders an emergency threat to the prosperity of the baby. When the baby gets stuck in the birth canal, the problem of oxygen deprivation arises. This creates the risk of brain injury and even death if the situation is not handled quickly.
In the case of shoulder dystocia, it is crucial that the doctors quickly dislodge the baby to avoid any hypoxic injury. Usually, a large number of manoeuvres are employed to free the stuck shoulder. Shoulder dystocia is very dangerous for the baby because there is a rush to release the baby’s shoulder; the doctors and nurses often use too much force. They use pressure to push, pull, and twist too hard and fast, causing physical injury to the baby.
If the shoulder dystocia is not managed swiftly, it results in oxygen deprivation which leads to cause brain injuries and disabilities such as cerebral palsy. Excessive force during shoulder dystocia may lead to cause fractured collar bones or damage to the brachial plexus nerves at the bottom of the neck. This kind of nerve damage causes a particular birth injury called Erb’s palsy.
Umbilical cord complications-
A dangerous complication during pregnancy is the prolapse of the umbilical cord. It is a very critical lifeline that connects the baby and the mother. During normal childbirth, the baby first goes through the birth canal, and then it is followed by the umbilical cord and placenta. Prolapse happens when the significant umbilical cord collapses into the cervical opening first and ends up in front of the baby as it enters the birth canal.
This is very risky as the baby’s head is pushed downward to compress the cord despite the pelvis or birth canal walls. This compression of the cord can restrain or even break off entirely the baby’s oxygen supply from the mother. As the mother’s labor contractions keep pushing down, the cord gets more compressed. Due to the compression of the prolapsed umbilical cord, it becomes essential to deliver the baby immediately to avoid birth asphyxia.
The umbilical cord is very harmful. The reason behind this is that it is one of those rare circumstances that can fully break off oxygen to the baby against simply restricting or decreasing it. There are many complications that occur with the umbilical cord and put the baby at risk for cerebral palsy because that is the cord that supplies blood and oxygen to the fetus from the mother. If the baby does not get blood and oxygen properly, then it can cause brain damage. Fortunately, umbilical cord prolapse is a rare event, and even it is reported less than half of a per cent of all the deliveries.
Refers to a complication that occurs during pregnancy. It is a problem in which a maternal bacterial infection infiltrates the amniotic fluid and fetal membranes. The condition initially starts in the mother’s vaginal area, and then it spreads upwards inside her womb. Although maternal infections are very common during pregnancy, chorioamnionitis is a particular type of infection that is rarely found and is considerably more dangerous.
Chorioamnionitis puts the fetus in danger. It is dangerous because the infection in the fetal membranes can directly cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients from mother to baby. This type of intra-amniotic infection may cause prenatal oxygen divestiture and can cause brain injuries. Presently, it is considered a significant cause of cerebral palsy. Another threat to this type of infection is that it can lead to premature labour and delivery, which substantially increases the risks of significant birth injuries.
5. Foetal macrosomia –
It is a scientific term for a baby that is too large for safe vaginal delivery. Any baby that is bigger than 9 lbs at full term is considered macrocosmic. There is nothing unhealthy to have a large baby. Undiagnosed fetal macrosomia is probably a dangerous complication. Vaginal delivery is not considered safe for delivering macrocosmic babies because they are large to get stuck inside the birth canal. When the baby gets stuck inside the birth canal at the time of delivery, they are at risk of oxygen deprivation, resulting in major brain injuries.
PERCENTAGE OF CHILDBIRTH COMPLICATIONS
- In the year 2017, approximately 810 women died from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth every day.
- Between the years 2000 and 2017, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) dropped by about 38% worldwide.
- 94% of all maternal death happen in low and lower-middle-income countries.
- The maternal mortality rate is very high. About 2 95,000 women died during pregnancy and childbirth in the year 2017. The majority of these deaths (94%) happened in low-resource settings, and most could have been prevented.